Rates of biochemical reactions within an organism are strongly dependent on its temperature. The rates of reactions may be doubled or tripled for each 10 degree increase in temperature. Temperatures above or below critical values may result in denaturation of enzymes and death of the organism.
A living organism is seldom at thermal equilibrium with its microenvironment, so the environmental temperature is only one of the factors determining organism temperature
Other influences are fluxes of radiant and latent heat to and from the organism, heat storage, and resistance to sensible heat transfer between the organism and its surroundings
Air temperature is a measure of how hot or cold the air is. It is the most commonly measured weather parameter. More specifically, temperature describes the kinetic energy, or energy of motion, of the gases that make up air. As gas molecules move more quickly, air temperature increases.
Air temperature affects the growth and reproduction of plants and animals, with warmer temperatures promoting biological growth. Air temperature also affects nearly all other weather parameters
Air temperature affects:
- the rate of evaporation
- relative humidity
- wind speed and direction
- precipitation patterns and types
The growth of higher plants is restricted to the temperature between 0 – 60 degree C and crop plants are further restricted to 10 – 40 degree C.
Soil temperature is a factor of primary importance for many physical, chemical, and biological processes. It governs:
- Evaporation and soil aeration
- All kind of chemical processes and reactions within the soil
- Biological processes such as seed germination, seedling emergence and growth, root development, microbial activity
Soil temperature varies in response to changes in radiant, thermal and latent energy exchange processes that take place preliminary through the soil surface. The effects of these phenomena are propagated into the soil profile by a complex series of transport processes.
Soil Cardinal Temperature
Cardinal Soil Temperature are the temperatures that determine the plant growth
- Minimum Temperature - below which can’t grow
- Maximum Temperature – above which plant growth stops
- Optimum Temperature – maximum plant growth
Example Wheat – Min : 3–4.5 ; Opt : 25 ; Max :30-32
Conceptually, base temperature is the temperature at which development stops through cold. As temperature increases above the base, the process goes progressively faster until it reaches the optimum temperature. The optimum is the temperature at which development is fastest. Higher temperatures than the optimum can slow development and at temperatures well above the optimum development may stop altogether and the plant may die.
Thermoperiodism : Response of plants to regular change in temperature
As the surface gets warmer, heat is transferred away from the surface by convection to the air layers above and by conduction to the soil beneath the surface.
Temperature extremes occur at the surface, where temperatures may be 5 to 10° C different from temperatures at 1.5 m, the height of a standard meteorological observation.
microenvironment may differ substantially from the macroenvironment.
The graph shos the variation in temperature with soil depth. After 1.5m the variation becomes constant.
The diurnal temperature wave penetrates much farther in the atmosphere than in the soil because heat transfer in the atmosphere is by eddy motion, or transport of parcels of hot or cold air over relatively long vertical distances, rather than by molecular motion.
The larger the transport distance, the more effective eddies are in transporting heat, so the air becomes increasingly well mixed as one moves away from the surface of the earth. This mixing evens out the temperature differences between layers.
They are steep close to the surface because heat is transported only short distances by the small eddies. Farther from the surface the eddies are larger, so the change of temperature with height (temperature gradient) becomes much smaller .
The fact that the temperature maximum occurs after the time of maximum solar energy input is significant. This is known as temperature lag. This type of lag is typical of any system with storage and resistance to flow.
Diurnal temperature variation – e.g., peak daily temperature typically occurs after noon (Maximum solar radiation are generated at 12pm but on earth its 2pm when there is maximum solar heating)
Seasonal lag – e.g., peak annual temperature typically occurs after the summer solstice
Also note that the time of maximum temperature (around day 200) significantly lags the time of maximum solar input (June 21 ; day 172).
The explanation for this lag is the same as for the diurnal cycle. Random temperature variations can also occur apart from this
Temperature & Biological Development
Temperature strongly influences the rates of all metabolic processes, thus all aspects of the growth and development of an organism.
Development can be defined as the orderly progress of an organism through defined stages from germination to death
Development differs from growth, which we define as the accumulation of dry matter
Plant stages of deveopment :
- Leaf appearance
A simple example of how the development rate is affected by temperature is given below for melon fly
Egg Development in Melon fly
Development time is short at temperatures between 20° and 30" C, but increases markedly at both higher and lower temperatures. Above 37° C and below 15" C, development times are very long
Monteith(1977) uses the term thermal time to describe a time scale in which the development rate of organisms is constant. It has also been referred to as physiological time or p-time
Units of thermal time are day-degrees or hour-degrees
The concept is often called as Growing Degree Days (GDD) which relate plant growth, development and maturity to ambient temperature
Its a measure of the accumulated amount of heat (in degrees Celsius) above a base temperature taken from one point on the landscape over time.
The concept of GDDs assumes that plant growth is directly related to the average daily temperature. It disregards factors such as soil temperature, differences in the pattern of night and day temperatures and other variations caused by the stage of growth of the plant. The GDDs for each day are added together, or accumulated throughout the growing season.
Assumption for calculating GDD
- The growing region of the plant is at air temperature
- The hourly air temperature does not go below the base temperature or above the maximum temperature during a day
- The process being predicted is linear with temperature between the base and maximum temperatures
Growing Degree Days (GDD)/ Growing Degree Units (GDUs)/ Heat Unit/ Thermal Unit
Base temperature is the lowest temperature where metabolic processes result in a net substance gain in aboveground biomass (Tbase). 10degree C is the common average Tb
Accumulated GDD (AGDD)
Sum of day by day GDD gives the accumulated temperature by plant or accumulated GDD
Every phase of development requires a minimum accumulation of temperature before that stage can be complete and the plant can move to the next stage
In effect, the plant senses the temperature every day and adds the average for that day to a running total up to the total required for the stage. This running total is called thermal time or the heat sum for the phase and the thermal units are degree days (°Cd)
Example : Wheat
For wheat, base and optimum temperatures aren’t always 0° C and 25° C respectively. They actually start lower and rise with development. The figure shows that although plants can grow at 0° C during the seedling stages, they make slow progress at the heading stage if temperatures are much below 10° C. Fortunately, varieties differ in their base and optimum by as much as 7° C at any stage. In general, winter wheat can develop at lower temperatures than spring wheat.
Phenology is the science of the influence of climate on the occurrence of biological events
Drawbacks in GDD
- Higher weightage is given to Tmax, although above 25 degree can be detrimental for plants
- Daily range of temperature is not considered
- Threshold temperature change at different crop stages, its not considered
- Soil fertility, wind, disease, insects can affect the growth of plants that are not accounted
Errors from the growing point temperature not being at air temperature can be significant. For example, the growing point in corn is below the soil surface in early developmental stages, and failure to use soil temperature during this time can result in errors of five days or more in prediction
Angus et al. (1981) report that the base temperature fall into two groups, one centered around 2° C, and the other around 11° C. The former are representative of temperate species such as wheat, barley, pea, etc., and the latter of tropical crops such as maize, millet, and sorghum.
Tbase and GDD for emergence of crops
Temperature Extremes can deviate during different times
The correct estimate of thermal time would be obtained by shortening to one hour, and summing hour-degrees to determine thermal time for the day. This is often done with insect models, where development times are short and good precision is required
GDD and Environmental Variables
Effective day degree concept includes other variables in GDD. The development rate concept can be extended to other environmental variables which alter the relationship between development and temperature
Example Photoperiod & vernalization also change rate of development
Minor modifiers include drought, nutrition and solar radiation.
Major modifiers however are photoperiod and vernalization
Photoperiodism can also be defined as the developmental responses of plants to the relative lengths of light and dark periods.
A plant which flowers under long-day conditions, but not when days are short. When the daylength is shorter than eight hours, no development occurs. For days longer than 16 hours, development occurs at the temperature determined rate. Any change in the length of photoperiod affects the plant.
Vernalization is the promotion of flowering in plants by cold treatment given to plants or imbibed seeds
Plants must be exposed to certain length of time to become and remain vernalized. Vernalization is required for re- productive growth of winter wheat.