Sources of Water Pollution

  Category of Water Pollution Sources


 

  Major Sources of Water Pollution


Oil Spillage 

Oil tankers and offshore petroleum refineries cause oil leakage polluting water. Oil spills can cause death of many aquatic organisms and also stick to the bodies and feather so seabirds which makes them unable to fly. Accidental oil leakage also add to water pollution

Domestic Sewage 

Domestic sewage is the waste water from households. It is also includes sanitary sewage, and it contains a variety of dissolved and suspended. Domestic sewage contains disease causing microbes and chemicals contained in washing powders affect the health of all life forms in water

Agricultural Run-off 

The practices followed in agriculture affect the groundwater quality. Intensive cultivation causes fertilizers and pesticides to seep into the groundwater; this process is known as leaching. Irrigation run-off from agricultural fields causes high nitrate content in ground water. 

Industrial waste

They contain pollutants such as lead, mercury, sulphur, asbestos, nitrates and many other harmful chemicals. Many industries do not have proper waste management system and drain the waste in the fresh water which goes into rivers, canals and later in to sea

Sewage and waste water

The sewage and waste water that is produced by each household is chemically treated and released in to sea with fresh water. The sewage water carries harmful bacteria and chemicals that can cause serious health problems. Leakage from sewer line also causes water pollution.

Mining activities

Mining activities emit several metal waste and sulphides from the rocks and is harmful for the water.

Marine dumping

The garbage produce by each household in the form of paper, aluminum, rubber, glass, plastic, food if collected and deposited into the sea in some countries

Burning of fossil fuels 

Coal and oil when burnt produce substantial amount of ash in the atmosphere. The particles which contain toxic chemicals when mixed with water vapor result in acid rain

Chemical fertilizers and pesticides

Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used by farmers to protect crops from insects and bacterias. They are useful for the plants growth. However, when these chemicals are mixed up with water produce harmful for plants and animals. Also, when it rains, the chemicals mixes up with rainwater and flow down into rivers and canals which pose serious damages for aquatic animals

Radioactive waste

The nuclear waste that is produced by radioactive material needs to be disposed off to prevent any nuclear accident. Nuclear waste can have serious environmental hazards if not disposed off properly. Few major accidents have already taken place in Russia and Japan.

Urban development: 

As population has grown, so has the demand for housing, food and cloth. As more cities and towns are developed, they have resulted in increase use of fertilizers to produce more food, soil erosion due to deforestation, increase in construction activities, inadequate sewer collection and treatment, landfills as more garbage is produced, increase in chemicals from industries to produce more materials

Leakage from the landfills

Landfills are nothing but huge pile of garbage that produces awful smell and can be seen across the city. When it rains, the landfills may leak and the leaking landfills can pollute the underground water with large variety of contaminants

Animal waste

The waste produce produce by animals is washed away into the rivers when it rains. It gets mixed up with other harmful chemicals and causes various water borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea, jaundice, dysentery and typhoid.

Underground storage leakage

Transportation of coal and other petroleum products through underground pipes is well known.

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