Kyoto Protocol

  Kyoto Protocol - Mandate

Groups - Annex I (I - 39 and II - 22) and

Non-Annex Countries

According to the protocol, Annex I countries have to reduce their CO2 emission by 5.2% below the 1992 (base year) levels in a period 2008-2012 (first commitment period)


Base Year

  • Bulgaria: 1988 alternative base year
  • Hungary: the average of the years 1985 –1987
  • Poland: 1988
  • Romania: 1989
  • Slovenia: 1986

Annex I countries (including the US) collectively agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%. Since the US has not ratified the treaty, the collective emissions reduction of Annex I Kyoto countries falls from 5.2% to 4.2% below base year

  Kyoto : No restrictions

Kyoto Protocol propose "NO EMISSION RESTRICTION ON DEVELOPING NATIONS". India comes under no restriction countries but has voluntary taken initiative for CO2 reduction under Protocol. 


Setting no immediate restrictions under UNFCCC serves three purposes:

  • It avoids restrictions on their development, because emissions are strongly linked to industrial capacity
  • They can sell emissions credits to nations whose operators have difficulty meeting their emissions targets
  • They get money and technologies for low-carbon investments from Annex I countries

  For Kyoto in Action


  Kyoto 1st Committment Period : Reduction Targets

  USA – Issues with Kyoto Protocol