CDM Cycle : India


Authority for CDM Projects in India is known as National CDM Authority (NCDMA); the role is played by Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) now known as MoEF&CC

  Sustainable Development Indicators

Any project is approved by NCDMA based on following Sustainable Development Indicators

  National Approval Process

  Project Design Document (PDD)

The project design document (PDD) is the key document involved in the validation and registration of a CDM project activity

It is one of the three documents required for a CDM project to be registered, along with the validation report from the designated operational entity (DOE) and the letter of approval from the designated national authority (DNA).

Specific PDDs exist for different project types:

  • Large-scale project activities (CDM-PDD)
  • Small-scale project activities (CDM-SSC-PDD)
  • Afforestation and reforestation project activities (CDM-AR-PDD)
  • Small-scale afforestation and reforestation project activities (CDM-SSC-AR-PDD)
  • Programmes of Activities (CDM-POA-DD) and CDM Programme Activities (CDM- CPA-DD)

  Designated Operational Entity (DOE)

  Project Development

  Institutional Structure for approval of CDM projects


  Steps Involved in CDM

The DOE checks whether the proposed project activity meets all the requirements of the CDM and submits its validation report to the Executive Board. 

Registration is the formal acceptance by the Executive Board of a validated project as a CDM project activity.

Once registered, the project proponents are responsible for monitoring the actual GHG emissions reduced by the project. A DOE may be approached periodically to verify and certify the reduction in GHG emissions

Verification is the periodic independent review and ex post determination of monitored emissions reductions

Certification is written assurance by the designated operational entity that, during a specified time period, a project activity achieved the GHG emissions reductions as verified

Issuance of CERs

The DOE along with its certification report submits a request to the Executive Board for the issuance of certified emission reductions (CERs)

  CDM Project - India

Till date projects approved by NCDMA:

Delhi Metro has earned Rs 9.5 crs (9,55,27,441 INR) through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects i.e Regenerative braking and Modal shift projects, between January, 2004 and 2012.

Regenerative Braking: Under the regenerative braking system, whenever a train applies brakes, the kinetic energy released starts a machine known as converter-inverter. This machine acts as an electricity generator which supplies electrical energy back to the Over Head Electricity (OHE) lines. The regenerated electrical energy that is supplied back to the OHE is used by other accelerating trains in the same service line, thus saving overall energy in the system as about 30 % of electricity requirement is reduced.

Modal Shift Project: Today about 25 lakh people travel in the city’s Metro Rail system which is completely non-polluting and environment friendly and, but for the Metro these people would have traveled by cars, busses, two/three wheelers etc which would have resulted in emission of green House Gases such as CO2, CO, HC, NOx, PM and SO2. Thus, DMRC has helped in reduction in emission of harmful gases into the city’s atmosphere and the United Nations Body administering the clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol has certified that DMRC has reduced Emissions.